Izimayini eziyishumi ezihamba phambili emhlabeni (6-10)

10.Escondida, Chile

Ubunikazi bemayini ye-ESCONDIDA e-Atacama Desert enyakatho yeChile buhlukaniswe phakathi kwe-BHP Billiton (57.5%) , i-Rio Tinto (30%) kanye nezinkampani ezihlanganyelwe eziholwa yi-Mitsubishi (12.5% ​​sezihlangene) .Imayini yaba ngamaphesenti angu-5 okukhiqizwa kwethusi emhlabeni wonke ngo-2016. Ukukhiqizwa sekuqalile ukwehla eminyakeni yamuva nje, futhi u-BHP Billiton uthe embikweni wakhe wezi-2019 mayelana nezinzuzo zemayini ukuthi ukukhiqizwa kwethusi e-Escondida kwehle ngamaphesenti angu-6 kusukela ngonyaka wezimali odlule kuya ku-1.135. amathani ayizigidi, ukwehla okulindelekile, lokho kungenxa yokuthi inkampani ibikezela ukwehla ngamaphesenti angu-12 ebangeni lethusi.Ngo-2018, i-BHP yavula imboni yokukhipha usawoti emanzini i-ESCONDIDA ukuze isetshenziswe ezimayini, ngaleso sikhathi eyayisikhulu kunazo zonke ekukhishweni kukasawoti emanzini.Lesi sikhungo besilokhu sandisa ukusebenza kwaso kancane kancane, kanti amanzi ahlanjululwe usawoti anenani elingamaphesenti angama-40 okusetshenziswa kwamanzi kulesi sikhungo ekupheleni konyaka wezimali ka-2019. umthelela omkhulu ekuthuthukisweni kwayo yonke imayini.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: Ithusi

Unjiniyela: I-BHP Billiton (BHP)

Ukuqala: 1990

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: 1,135 kilotons (2019)

09. Mir, Russia

Imayini yokugaya yaseSiberia yake yaba imayini yedayimane enkulu kunazo zonke ezweni elaliyiSoviet Union.Imayini yomgodi ovulekile ingamamitha angama-525 ukushona kanye namakhilomitha ayi-1.2 ububanzi.Ibhekwa njengomunye wemigodi emikhulu yokumba emhlabeni futhi iyitshe legumbi lemboni yedayimane eyayiyiSoviet Union.Umgodi ovulekile wasebenza kusukela ngo-1957 kuya ku-2001, wavalwa ngokusemthethweni ngo-2004, wabuye wavulwa ngo-2009 futhi wahamba ngaphansi komhlaba.Ngesikhathi ivalwa ngo-2001, imayini yayilinganiselwa ukuthi isikhiqize amadayimane angamabhiliyoni angama-$17.Imayini yokugaya yaseSiberia, manje esetshenziswa yi-Alrosa, inkampani enkulu yedayimane yaseRussia, ikhiqiza ama-2,000 kg amadayimane ngonyaka, amaphesenti angama-95 okukhiqizwa kwedayimane kuzwelonke, futhi kulindeleke ukuthi iqhubeke nokusebenza kuze kube unyaka wezi-2059.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: idayimane

Umsebenzisi: Alrosa

Ukuqala: 1957

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: 2,000 kg

08. Boddington, Australia

Imayini ye-BODDINGTON iyimayini yegolide enkulu kunazo zonke e-Australia yomgodi ovulekile, idlula imayini enkulu edumile (umgodi ovulekile i-Feston) lapho iqala kabusha ukukhiqizwa ngo-2009. Idiphozithi yegolide e-Boddington kanye nebhande le-greenstone lase-Maanfeng eNtshonalanga ye-Australia ziyizinhlamvu zegolide zohlobo lwebhande le-greenstone.Ngemuva kokuhlangana kwezindlela ezintathu phakathi kwe-Newmont, i-Anglogoldashanti ne-Newcrest, i-Newmont yathola isiteki ku-AngloGold ngo-2009, yaba ukuphela komnikazi kanye no-opharetha wenkampani.Imayini iphinde ikhiqize i-copper sulfate, futhi ngo-March 2011, eminyakeni emibili nje kamuva, yakhiqiza amathani okuqala angu-28,35 egolide.I-Newmont yethula iphrojekthi ye-forestry carbon offset e-Burdington ngo-2009 futhi yatshala izithombo zamahhashi angu-800,000 eNew South Wales naseWestern Australia.Inkampani ilinganisela ukuthi lezi zihlahla zizomunca cishe amathani angama-300,000 ekhabhoni eminyakeni engama-30 kuye kwengama-50, kuyilapho kuthuthukisa usawoti omhlabathi kanye nezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zendawo, futhi isekela i-Clean Energy Act yase-Australia kanye nohlelo lweCarbon Agriculture, uhlelo lwephrojekthi lubambe iqhaza elibaluleke kakhulu ekwakhiweni. zezimayini eziluhlaza.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: Igolide

Umsebenzisi: Newmont

Ukuqala: 1987

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani angama-21.8

07. Kiruna, Sweden

Imayini ye-KIRUNA eLapland, eSweden, iyimayini yensimbi enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni futhi ibekwe kahle ukubuka i-Aurora Borealis.Imayini yaqala ukumbiwa ngo-1898 futhi manje isisetshenziswa nguhulumeni i-luossavara-kiirunaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) , inkampani yezimayini yaseSweden.Ubukhulu bemayini yensimbi yaseKiruna buholele idolobha laseKiruna ukuthi linqume ngo-2004 ukuthi lithuthe isikhungo sedolobha ngenxa yengozi yokuthi kungabangela ukuthi ingaphezulu lizike.Ukuthutha kwaqala ngo-2014 futhi inkaba yedolobha izokwakhiwa kabusha ngo-2022. NgoMeyi 2020, ukuzamazama komhlaba okulinganiselwa ku-4.9 kwenzeka endaweni yezimayini ngenxa yemisebenzi yezimayini.Ngokwesilinganiso sesistimu yokuqapha ukuzamazama komhlaba, ukujula kwesiqephu esingaba ngu-1.1 km.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali ayinhloko: insimbi

Umsebenzisi: LKAB

Ukuqala: 1989

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani ayizigidi ezingama-26.9 (2018)

06. Inja Ebomvu, US

Itholakala esifundeni sase-Alaska e-Arctic, imayini ye-Red Dog iyimayini ye-zinc enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni.Imayini iphethwe yi-Teck Resources, ebuye ikhiqize umthofu nesiliva.Le mayini ekhiqiza cishe u-10% we-zinc emhlabeni, kulindeleke ukuthi isebenze kuze kube ngu-2031. Le mayini igxekwe ngomthelela wayo kwezemvelo njengoba umbiko we-United States Environmental Protection Agency uthi ikhipha izinto ezinobuthi emvelweni ukwedlula zonke ezinye. isikhungo e-United States.Nakuba umthetho we-alaskan uvumela amanzi angcolile acociwe ukuthi akhishelwe kumanethiwekhi emifula, i-Tektronix yabhekana nesinyathelo somthetho ngo-2016 ngenxa yokungcoliswa komfula i-Urik.Noma kunjalo, i-United States Environmental Protection Agency yavumela i-Alaska ukuthi isuse i-Red Dog Creek eseduze nomfula i-ICARUS ohlwini lwayo lwamanzi angcoliswe kakhulu.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali ayinhloko: Zinc

Umsebenzisi: Izinsiza ze-Teck

Ukuqala: 1989

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani angama-515,200


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Feb-22-2022