Izimayini eziyishumi eziphezulu emhlabeni (1-5)

05. Carajás, Brazil

I-KARAGAS ingumkhiqizi omkhulu wensimbi yensimbi emhlabeni, futhi inenani elilinganiselwe lamathani angaba ngu-7.2 bn.I-Mine Operator yayo, i-Vale, uchwepheshe wensimbi nezimayini wase-Brazil, ungumkhiqizi omkhulu kunayo yonke wensimbi ne-nickel emhlabeni futhi isebenzisa izindawo eziyisishiyagalolunye zokuphehla ugesi ngamanzi.Imayini inikwa amandla yidamu elikhiqiza ugesi laseTukurui eliseduze, okungenye yephrojekthi ekhiqiza kakhulu yaseBrazil kanye nephrojekthi yokuqala yokuphehla ugesi ngamanzi ezoqedwa ehlathini lemvula lase-Amazon.U-Tukuri, nokho, ungaphandle kwesifunda sika-Vale.I-Karagas iron ore iyigugu kumqhele ka-Vale.Itshe lalo liqukethe i-iron engamaphesenti angama-67 futhi ngenxa yalokho linikeza i-ore yezinga eliphezulu kakhulu.Uchungechunge lwezinsiza emayini lumboza amaphesenti angu-3 alo lonke ihlathi likazwelonke lase-Brazilian, futhi i-CVRD izibophezele ekuvikeleni amaphesenti angu-97 asele ngokusebenzisana kwamasu ne-ICMBIO kanye ne-IBAMA.Phakathi kwamanye amaphrojekthi entuthuko esimeme, i-Vale isungule uhlelo lokugaywa kabusha kwensimbi eyenza inkampani ikwazi ukucubungula kabusha amathani ayizigidi ezi-5.2 we-ultra-fine ore efakwe emachibini e-tailings.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali ayinhloko: insimbi

Umsebenzisi: Vale

Ukuqala: 1969

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani ayizigidi eziyi-104.88 (2013)

04. Grasberg, Indonesia

Eyaziwa iminyaka eminingi njengediphozi yegolide enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, idiphozi yegolide yase-Glasberg e-Indonesia iyidiphozi yegolide evamile, lapho izinqolobane zayo zazibhekwa njengento engenamsebenzi maphakathi nawo-1980, kwaze kwaba yilapho kuhlolwa ngo-1988 e-PT Freeport Indonesia lapho kwatholakala khona ukuthi zineziqiwu ezibalulekile ezisambiwa.Izimali zayo ezigciniwe zilinganiselwa ukuthi zibiza cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-40 futhi iningi liphethwe yiFreeport-McMoRan ngokubambisana ne-Rio Tinto, enye yezikhondlakhondla zezimayini ezibaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni.Imayini inesilinganiso esiyingqayizivele futhi iyimayini yegolide ephakeme kakhulu emhlabeni (5030m) .Iwumgodi ovulekile ngokwengxenye futhi ingaphansi komhlaba.Kusukela ngo-2016, cishe amaphesenti angama-75 omkhiqizo wawo uvela ezimayini zemigodi evulekile.IFreeport-McMoRan ihlela ukuphothula ukufakwa kwesithando somlilo esisha embonini ngo-2022.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: Igolide

Umsebenzisi: PT Freeport Indonesia

Ukuqala: 1972

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani angama-26.8 (2019)

03. Debmarine, Namibia

I-Debmarine Namibia ihlukile ngoba akuyona imayini ejwayelekile, kodwa uchungechunge lwezimayini zasogwini oluholwa yi-Debmarine Namibia, i-50-50 ngokubambisana phakathi kwe-De Beer Group kanye nohulumeni waseNamibia.Lo msebenzi wenzeke ngasogwini oluseningizimu yeNamibia futhi inkampani yatshala imikhumbi emihlanu ukuze ilande amadayimane.NgoMeyi 2019, leli bhizinisi elihlanganyelwe lamemezela ukuthi lizothuthukisa futhi liqalise umkhumbi wokuqala wokubuyisela idayimane ngokwezifiso emhlabeni, ozoqala ukusebenza ngo-2022 ngezindleko zamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-468.I-Debmarine Namibia ithi iwutshalomali olubaluleke kakhulu emlandweni wemboni yedayimane yasolwandle.Imisebenzi yezimayini yenziwa ngobuchwepheshe obubili obubalulekile: ukubhola emoyeni kanye nobuchwepheshe bezimayini bohlobo lwe-crawler.Umkhumbi ngamunye emkhunjini uyakwazi ukulandelela, ukuthola kanye nokuhlola indawo engaphansi kolwandle, usebenzisa ubuchwepheshe besimanje bokubhola ukuze kwandiswe ukukhiqizwa.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: idayimane

Umsebenzisi: Debmarine Namibia

Ukuqala: 2002

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: I-1.4 MILLION CARAT

02. Morenci, US

I-Moresi, e-Arizona, ingenye yabakhiqizi abakhulu kakhulu bekhopha emhlabeni, enezindawo ezibalelwa emalini eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-3.2 kanye nethusi elingamaphesenti angu-0.16.IFreeport-McMoRan inamasheya amaningi emayini kanti iSumitomo inamaphesenti angama-28 ekusebenzeni kwayo.Imayini ibilokhu izimayini emigodini evulekile kusukela ngo-1939 futhi ikhiqiza amathani angaba ngu-102 000 ensimbi yethusi ngonyaka.Ekuqaleni imayini yayimbiwa ngaphansi komhlaba, yaqala inguquko yezimayini zemigodi evulekile ngo-1937. Imayini ye-MORESI, ingxenye ebalulekile yemisebenzi yezempi yase-US phakathi nempi, yacishe yaphinda kabili imiphumela yayo phakathi neMpi Yezwe II.Izincibilikisi zayo ezimbili zomlando ziye zayekiswa ukusebenza futhi zasetshenziswa kabusha, okwesibili kwazo kwayeka ukusebenza ngo-1984. Ngo-2015, kwaqedwa iphrojekthi yokukhulisa imboni yensimbi, okukhuphula umthamo wesikhungo ukuba ube ngamathani ayi-115,000 ngosuku.Imayini kulindeleke ukuthi ifinyelele ku-2044.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: Ithusi

Umsebenzisi: Freeport-McMoRan

Ukuqala: 1939

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani ayi-102,000

01. Mponeng, South Africa

I-MPONENG Gold Mine, etholakala cishe kumakhilomitha angama-65 entshonalanga yeGoli futhi cishe amakhilomitha amane ngaphansi kobuso beGauteng, iyindawo ejule kakhulu emhlabeni yegolide eligcinwe ngokwezinga eliphezulu.Ngokujula kwemayini, izinga lokushisa le-Rock surface lafinyelela cishe ku-66 °C, futhi udaka lweqhwa lwaphonswa phansi, lwehlisa izinga lokushisa lomoya libe ngaphansi kuka-30 °C.Imayini isebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokulandelela i-elekthronikhi ukuze kwandiswe ukuphepha kwabavukuzi, ubuchwepheshe busiza ukwazisa ngokushesha nangempumelelo abasebenzi abangaphansi komhlaba ngolwazi olufanele lokuphepha.I-Anglogold Ashanti ingumnikazi futhi isebenzisa imayini, kodwa yavuma ukudayisela indawo ku-Harmony Gold ngo-February 2020. Ngo-June 2020, i-Harmony Gold yayisihlanganise imali engaphezu kuka-$200m ukuze ixhase ukutholwa kwezimpahla ze-MPONENG eziphethwe yi-AngloGold.

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Umbhalo ochazayo:

Amaminerali amakhulu: Igolide

Umsebenzisi: Harmony Gold

Ukuqala: 1981

Ukukhiqizwa konyaka: amathani ayi-9.9


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Feb-22-2022